Acoustic Force

Acoustic Warfare Handbook

Generic Handbook

The Acoustic Warfare Handbook is a naval and air force tactician's complete guide to the employment of sonar for the purpose of acoustic warfare.

Information in the handbook is based on detailed scientific research and engineering principles, but is presented in a simple and operationally relevant manner (no large mathematical formulas or "PhD speak").

Whilst the handbook is organised primarily for the submarine warfare officer, on account of the fact that submarines tend to have the most complex collection of undersea sensors, it is equally relevant to surface ship principal warfare officers, airborne sensor operators and airborne tactical co-ordinators. It will also be of interest to defence scientists and other defence civilians, providing them with operational insight.

The Acoustic Warfare Handbook is a eight volume set.

Volume One - Submarine Operations

This volume provides an introduction to modern submarine operations. It consists of three parts

Part One looks at the characteristics that makes submarines such a potent and useful platform and includes a detailed description of their operational roles and functions.

Part Two looks at the various submarine platform and mission systems describing their purpose, the technologies and techniques employed in these systems and the operational and tactical contributions these systems make to the overall submarine capability.

Part Three concludes the topic of submarine warfare by describing the manner in which different missions are likely to be performed. In effect, it proposes a generic doctrine for submarine warfare.

Volume Two - Detection

Volume Two introduces the reader to the sonar problem and then guides the reader through the processes of passive and active detection.

In the passive case, the generation of sound at the source is described along with a description of the sound's journey through the water column, followed by an explanation of what happens inside the submarine's sonar after the target noise reaches the arrays through to the point where the submarine’s Command is advised of the fact that there is a detection.

A similar approach is taken for active detection.

Volume Three - Analysis and Classification

Volume Three describes the processes of analysis and classification.

It aims to provide an understanding of how target noise is generated and how the resulting characteristics of the noise aid analysis and classification. Which arrays and signal processing options yield the best analysis and classification results for a given noise type are discussed as well as the computing and display tools that aid the sonar operator in the task.

Active sonar classification is also addressed.

Volume Four - Tracking and Localisation

Volume Four describes the process of tracking and localising a target; highlighting the aspects of radiated noise, sound propagation and oceanography which assist sonars and their operators in following a contact and in determining the range, course, speed and depth of a target. Sonar and combat systems tools and features such as sonar trackers, passive ranging processes and Target Motion Analysis are discussed.

Volume Five - Engagement and Other Mission Tasks

Volume Five focuses on to how to employ acoustic systems in the engagement phase of a submarine mission such as strike. A discussion on acoustic countermeasures use by opposing forces also takes place.

Acoustic and acoustic systems aspects of other mission task such as Special Forces operations and some constabulary operations are explored. This discussion also covers the business end of ISR operations; recording.

Volume Six - Defensive Operations

Volume Six looks at how to execute a submarine mission in the context of opposing forces.

It discusses techniques used to avoid counter detection and method used to evade a contact if counter detection has occurred. The material covers noise husbandry, the use of the environment and tactical methods to avoid detection, and the use of similar techniques and countermeasures to evade a contact or weapon which has managed to gain contact.

Methods for assessing enemy in contact status are also discussed.

Volume Seven - ASW Operations

This volume provides an introduction to modern ASW operations. It consists of three parts

Part One outlines a strategic approach to ASW. It introduces the notion that modern ASW requires a toolbox and networked approach, with the toolset including shore based intelligence, space based assets, strike aircraft, ASW aircraft and helicopters, surface ships, submarines, seabed sensors and mines.

Part Two looks at the various components of the ASW toolbox. The various platforms and the mission systems associated with each platform are examined. Particular attention is paid to the acoustic systems within each mission system, including a description of their generic capabilities and limitations. A high level introduction of non acoustic sensors are included for completeness.

Part Three concludes the topic of ASW by describing the manner in which different platforms and their missions systems are likely to be employed against a submarine or submarine force. The discussion is organised around each of the different submarine mission types and the operational and tactical approach relevant for each of the mission types. In effect, it proposes a generic doctrine for anti submarine warfare.

Volume Eight - Mine Warfare and REA Operations

This volume provides an introduction to modern Mine Warfare and REA operations. It consists of five parts

Part One introduces mine laying and a strategic approach to mine counter measures. As is done for ASW, a toolbox approach to mine countermeasure warfare, be it expeditionary or otherwise, is suggested. The many facets of mine warfare and are introduced, along with the many tool.

Part Two discussed the REA cycle of direction and co-ordination, collection, analysis and processing and dissemination of relevant environmental information to provide a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the physical operating environment and its impact on military operations. The tools required to conduct REA operations are introduced.

Noting that there is overlap and commonality in the tools used to conduct Mine Warfare and REA, they are discussed in combination. Part Three looks at a mine hunting platforms, mine sweeping platforms and craft of opportunity that might be used in either operation. Embarked unmanned underwater vehicles and unmanned surface vehicle are also introduced. The various mission systems employed on these platforms and vehicle are also discussed. Particular attention is paid to the acoustic systems, although a high level introduction of non acoustic sensors are included in the discussion for completeness. On completion of this discussion the reader will be familiar with all tools in the Mine Warfare and REA toolbox and an understanding of the operational and tactical capabilities and limitations of each.

Part Four concludes the topic of Mine Warfare by describing the manner in which different platforms and their missions systems perform their tasks; be that route surveying, mine sweeping, mine hunting or, indeed, mine laying. Ship protection is also discussed. In effect, it proposes a generic doctrine for mine warfare.

Part Five concludes the topic of REA by describing the manner in which different platforms and their missions systems perform their tasks. This discussion includes a description of the complete REA cycle. In effect, it proposes a generic doctrine for REA.

Tailored Handbook

Material in the Acoustic Warfare Handbook is derived from numerous open source scientific and sonar engineering publications, open source literature and news items along with the author's 25 years involvement in the world of acoustics. This involvement includes trips on the submarines, warships, MCM vessels, survey ships and aircraft of numerous countries.

It is possible to tailor the handbook to the needs of specific submarines and sonar systems (the result of which would would most likely be a classified nationalised version of the handbook).

Enquiries

For further enquiries in relation to the Acoustic Warfare Handbook, please contact awh@acousticforce.com.au